Saturday, March 14, 2020

Research Essay Essay Example

Research Essay Essay Example Research Essay Essay Research Essay Essay Essay Topic: The Glass Menagerie â€Å"Reading is neither neutral, nor natural. † How does your context as a reader influence your reading of The Dreamers? Reading is neither neutral, nor natural. Readers are constantly positioned to make their own ideas and opinions of different texts based on their own understand and connecting of their personal context. In Jack Davis’ The Dreamers the descriptions of the tribal family in the first scene provide a strong, central reading that while I would accept, the earlier generations from those times would challenge the mutual reading of the harmonious tribal family. The different generations of past and present times would also have many contrasting views on particular characters such as Worru. Additionally, the study of past texts, such as The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams and Coonardoo by Katherine Suzanne Prichard, allows me to comprehend the meaning behind the symbol of alcohol in The Dreamers and how it is a representation of escapism for people in degrading ways of society. In the beginning of The Dreamers by Jack Davis, we are described a scene of a tribal family walking, relaxed, across an escarpment with children happily singing songs of cultural meaning, relaying their innocence and happy family-based futures: â€Å"Dawn. We hear the distant echoing of children singing a tribal song. A tribal family walks slowly across the escarpment silhouetted against the first light of dawn. The central, prominent reading brought forward by Davis’ descriptions and symbolism of the melodious, peaceful tribal family is one I accept because of Davis’ way of showing the harmonious nature of the aboriginal culture and way in their environment, in the world they know. However, the white generations of the 1980s would contrast and challenge this communal reading because of their own racial attitudes and beliefs of Aboriginals. To the whites of the 1980s, Aboriginals were filthy and worthless individuals and therefore the white society audiences were unable to cope with and respect the cultural identity and way of life of Aboriginals. These confrontational views of The Dreamers show how reading is not neutral. Every generation is different, therefore they all respond to particular readings inversely due to their own personal context. This reinforces that reading is not neutral. Worru is a character in The Dreamers who is exceedingly diverse from the members of his family. Worru is the representation of Davis’ views of his own complicated culture and aboriginal context. Worru is desperately trying to hold onto his Nyoongah (aboriginal) culture that within him has ‘survived civilisation’ through reminiscing about life before white settlement and his language: â€Å"I walked down the track to where the camp place used to be and voices, laughing, singing, came surging back to me. In Act One Scene One, Worru sings of his past, something that is all but real now that he is going through a lost as a result of living in a suburbia-dominated world. Through the study of Coonardoo by Katherine Suzanne Prichard, I am able to see that the aboriginal generational views would be ones of sympathy and empathetic understanding, as aboriginals would be able to relate heavily with Worru, knowing just how much they lost because of the dramatic change in the way they wanted to live. On the contrary, a white audience of the same era wouldn’t be able to understand how aboriginals couldn’t adapt to such a â€Å"easy† lifestyle, and be unable to connect to the Aboriginal background and estrangement of their race. Readers who have read more texts than most are able to see and understand how changed contexts but parallel themes are cooperative in identifying symbols. Through my reading The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams and The Dreamers has allowed me to understand the symbol of alcohol and its meaning of escapism in both plays respectively. Tom Wingfield from The Glass Menagerie drinks constantly, trying to escape the horrors of the Great Depression in America. He drinks to forget his issues and withdraw from a pitiful reality. This reading allows me to understand the reasoning behind why, in The Dreamers, Worru, Peter, Eli and Roy all drink constantly – using money needed for food and other essentials: â€Å"The full bottle is now nearly empty. The heat and the alcohol are taking their toll. † The characters drink alcohol to also escape from the cultural oppression of white society and the failing ways of aboriginal life. They see alcohol as the only way to forget what has been done to them, as it is an influential depressant, and using it to disengage from a reality that would see the complete deprivation of the aboriginal way – a way they cherish. An informed reading is not something that just comes naturally, it must be taught and learnt over the reading of numerous texts, therefore reading is not natural. In Conclusion, readings are mostly advanced through a readers own individual context and experiences. My interpretations on a tribal aboriginal family were analogized by the white generations of the 1980s view on aboriginals, establishing that reading is not neutral. The diverse generational views formed unlike perspectives on who would sympathise with the hostility of the aboriginal race, my own background through the study of the other texts Coonardoo, The Dreamers and The Glass Menagerie has given me a purer understanding of how alcohol embodies escapism for people in contemporary society. All these factors have established my view that reading is neither neutral, nor natural.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Implementing Radical Change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Implementing Radical Change - Essay Example This study follows the recommendations suggested by Gersick (1991) to differentiate between changes in processes and the outcome of these processes. The author used this recommendation to differentiate between the nature of changes and its implementation speed. These two dimensions have been used as frameworks to discuss all the issues related to radical changes implementation. This paper suggests that it is very useful to differentiate between the nature of changes and the speed of its implementation and assumes that this distinction is important to deal with radical changes; especially for researchers and change managers. This paper suggests that the gradual implementation of radical changes can reduce the degree of user resistance to changes. As pointed out by this paper, the gradual (slow) implementation of radical changes can be achieved with more effect under specific circumstances, especially in the software development. This study suggests that there are two key elements that contribute to the gradual implementation of radical changes: "organization characteristics" such as organizational culture and "technological innovation" such as investing in technology on a long-term. This study uses two dimensions of changes- the nature of change and the implementation of the changes. These two dimensions give the study a broad understanding of how the changes happen and what is the effective speed to implement the changes. The findings of this r... This paper suggests that the gradual implementation of radical changes can reduce the degree of user resistance to changes. As pointed out by this paper, the gradual (slow) implementation of radical changes can be achieved with more effect under specific circumstances, especially in the software development. This study suggests that there are two key elements that contribute to the gradual implementation of radical changes: "organization characteristics" such as organizational culture and "technological innovation" such as investing in technology on a long-term. 3.2. Evaluation This study uses two dimensions of changes- the nature of change and the implementation of the changes. These two dimensions give the study a broad understanding of how the changes happen and what is the effective speed to implement the changes. This study is limited to particular change in certain organizations during a short period of time and cannot be generalized into other changes in other organizations. The findings of this research results from the implementation of radical change in a specific organization settings, during the implementation of the specific technology -"CASE (Computer-Aided Software Engineering) tools". Hence there are no evidences to prove that the findings may be applicable to other technologies. 3.3. Key sources The authors of this paper based on the recommendation of Gersick as a key source for analysing the radical changes in the selected company. This paper drew on the works of Fichman, Kemerer and Orlikowski to categorize the implementation of CASE tools as radical changes. In addition, this study is based on the "episodic pattern" introduced by Tyre and Orlikowski to determine the implementation speed of

Monday, February 10, 2020

Radio program about 'Conservative Muslims in Liberal Britain' Essay

Radio program about 'Conservative Muslims in Liberal Britain' - Essay Example They believe that a woman should not expose her body to the public. The conservative Muslims are keen are keen on increasing the cultural gap between them and other communities integrated in the British liberal society. They take their children specifically to Muslim schools in an effort to segregate themselves and protect their culture. The conservative Muslims don’t expect their children to mix with other children claiming that they may be brainwashed and persuaded to forget about their culture. The parents go to an extent of warning their children from having English or black friends. They only want the children to attend the schools where they are restricted to other humanity subjects (BBC Radio4). The Pakistani in Britain are more conservative than the ones in their home country. This is especially evident among the Muslim leaders in Britain who think they can easily be assimilated and forget about their culture. The Palestine in their home country are more liberal and outgoing. The Muslims tend to think that their children can easily adopt the Britain culture that is illegal in their religion such as gay marriages. Some of the conservative Muslims also want to maintain their cultures t hat are illegal in Britain such as polygamy. The conservative British Pakistani are so insecure around people from other races and religions. They cluster and stay in same residences away from other people. They are also less likely to marry from a different race or tribe. They believe that intermarriage will dilute their culture and customs (BBC Radio4). They also believe in confining their women in the houses or when they move out, they completely cover themselves up with the clothing. The women are not allowed to go to the mosque or work. Even those who are lucky to work they have to find jobs near home. This has deepened the differences and in the process inhibiting integration with the other people in the

Thursday, January 30, 2020

One girl one dream Essay Example for Free

One girl one dream Essay This knew that this wasnt the end of the man, he would be back, but next time I will hopefully be a bit more prepared. Eleza is that you? Cried a soft voice Mum? Mum is that you? I didnt think it was possible Eleza I knew you would come back she replied I have to go mum sorry, I cant get close to you because it will rip you apart when I leave again, sorry I shouted while running away down the street No Eleza no! I cant cope without you screeched mum That was the last time I ever saw my mum. Gun shots were fired shortly after I had left, and I just assumed that the police heard her and found out where she was hiding. I knew that the police would be after me soon so I searched refuge on the out skirts of the village, fortunately a couple were also on the run from the police so I went into a home with them, it wasnt an amazing home but at least it provided a roof over my head and food for my empty stomach. Why are you running from the police? I questioned the couple, because of our religion, people here do not support our beliefs and say that we dont belong in this community they stopped, they were going to say more but they could see that I was too tired to listen and so they rested my head in the cloth and rug bed they had made up for me, I thanked them. I started to shiver as it got later into the night so I moved my bed closer to the raging fire to keep warm. I woke up the next morning still feeling incredibly tired because I didnt sleep very well. The couple were very kind to me, for breakfast they gave me a cup of milk and also a piece of bread. Once I had finished eating my food I told the couple what my situation was and what my plans are, they took it as quite a surprise but understood completely and even offered to help out. Knowing that they were old enough to earn a living I stayed along side them for many days. Later on that evening we gathered around the beaming fire and chatted for hours and hours, that was until there was a knock at the door, shh, Eleza hide quickly said the couple silently. I tip toed towards the wooden toy chest and climbed in. open up! demanded a strong deep voice, The woman opened the door to the strange dark clothed man. on the floor, now! he shouted again The did as he said, I couldnt see everything but I could see through a little hole in the side of the chest. Even before the couple could have a chance to speak, the man shot them both in the head. As that bullet pierced into their skull I cringed and couldnt bare the sight, I wanted to cry but any noise could give me the same shot to the head. The strange dark man left, dragging the 2 bodies behind him. I broke out of the toy chest and went to the bathroom; I splashed water onto my face to revive my self, I knew it wasnt worth getting worked up about as I already had a mission to complete. But this incident just made me more determined to get back at the mayor. Whats next? Chapter 11 Screaming with silent rage I crept through the village of murderers. My mind was spinning and I had headaches slicing in and out my skull. I noticed the mayor walking down the street, I followed not too far behind, by the looks of it he was walking towards the forest, I wanted to go see if Oscar was ok but didnt want to chance getting caught. I gave up on following the mayor because he walked into a building and then just disappeared out of sight. I then focused on getting into the forest to see the construction so far. It had been raining the night before so the way up the hill was wet and slippery, I fell many times, but easily managed to get back up again. When I finally reached the top of the hill I saw that the construction hadnt progressed much at all. I went around back to see more, Eleza.. PST.. Eleza over here came a whisper from behind. hey, how are you here, I saw you had a arrow in your back, you cant be alive! I stepped back in shock, that was a tranquiliser, the guard saw me and assumed I was trying to steal the blueprint, so shot me simple mistake, Im sorry I scared you like that. are you still willing to help me then? I wanted to get this over with so I wasnt going to laze about. dont worry about the building Eleza, since youve been gone I have spoken to the mayor and many arguments were fought, but I have managed to convince them to make the building eco friendly. It will cost a lot more money to make but you are the reason why many animals in this forest will be preserved and protected well done! thank-you for doing this for me, how can I repay you for this? I felt incredibly happy that someone was inspired by me. come down to the mayors office with me tonight, I think he wants to talk to you replied the boy. are you mad! I will be killed! I shouted no seriously I can honestly say that you are safe with me, please trust me as I trusted you before pleaded the boy I felt that if I didnt go then it would be mean because he had helped me out a great deal and I should help him in return. ok then, but if anything should go wrong then may your thoughts be guilty for ever I accepted to see what the mayor wanted. I went off into the forest to get ready for tonight, I found Oscar beneath a big branch where we once stayed. He followed me down to the lake, I took a swim to clean off so not to get bad impressions with the mayor. The time passed and by the time I had dried off and got back to the construction site it was already time to go. come on then we best get a move on I said while already walking. We reached the mayors present house on time, we knocked on the door and waited for a response. Helping out- chapter 12 Enter please spoke a well mannered butler Just stay calm and when the mayor wants to talk then let him demanded the boy Hello Eleza, I have heard many stories of you, I understand that you like to stand up for what you believe in, am I right? said the mayor in a strong voice Yes, you are correct I answer in the simplest way possible I want you to do a favour for me, I will pay for your food and sleeping place, you wonder why, but I really do think that you have the courage we need, do you think you can manage to stand up for what you believe in even if the opposition is bigger?. I thought for a while before proclaiming my reply, I would love to take hold of the responsibility of helping out, but do not understand why you would choose me to do this, I was being chased by your men the other day, how can I know that I can trust you? I still wasnt convinced but if what he was saying was true then I would be overwhelmed and hopefully do a good job. Ok, I guess I should tell you now, I havent been completely straight with you, I will look after the forest here for you, but you must leave to southern Africa to do a job for me, flight is paid for, and you will be helping the green team to help decrease the amount of de forestation, and also in your free time you will be helping the smaller children in the schools but if you do not accept this then your precious forest will be burned to the ground for my house to be bigger! So the choice is yours. It wasnt much of a choice so I just did what I had to and agreed to go. I will go but Oscar must be able to fly over with me! Im sorry but it is illegal for wild animals like Oscar to fly over on the plane with you I knew he was right so I just gave in, but made sure that he is promised to be looked after by the mayor. I looked back and went to talk to my friend, Ive never been to Africa, is this a nice place to be? I havent ever been either, but I do know that it is a third world country, with children that need your help replied my friend. The mayor went out the room and talked to another man about the trip, I was shacking but not because I was scared, just because I was filled with many emotions, I was actually quite excited. Journey and arrival chapter 13 I set off early the following morning and endured 12 long tiring hours on the flight to northern Africa, then another 9 hours on a train to my destination. When I got off the train my legs were numb and floppy. When I arrived I was directed into a small long building and was told what I should do. The mayor explained that he is only here today then will be flying home tomorrow, and then he introduced me to my mentor. Eleza, I hope that your stay here will be pleasurable, my name is Mandisa please come meet our youngest residents in our village. I was taken into a classroom where little children stared at the teacher, they gave her all their attention, there was no shouting, it was just calm nice place to learn. I didnt want to disturb them so instead I went into the village centre and saw just how hard it was for them to survive. Could I have a cup of water please? I asked a local The man said nothing, he walked over to a well and scooped out a bucket of water, I went over to him, he handed me the bucket. Is this what you drink everyday? I wondered I looked into the bucket; the water was cloudy with dirt floating on the surface. This wasnt what I was expecting, I was hoping that the people hadnt been drinking this for too long, this water isnt drinkable and could kill if the wrong bits are drank. It is the end of the school day now, come with me to see the children said Mandisa I followed her to the classroom again and met up with the kids, meeting them made me feel important, I felt like I was a vital part of their lives, and that I could make a difference to their lives. Hello, my name is Keon, whats your name? questioned a young boy Eleza, I am here to help you and your class friends out. Yay, no-ones ever come to our village before, other than Aitan, your mayor Is your mum going to pick you up from school? I just wanted to talk to him, I wanted to make friends. My mum is gone Keon fell silent and faced the ground she is gone, but my dad is in the fields. I have to go; my older sister has a disease and needs all the support she can get. Before I could get a chance to comfort him he was gone. I walked down the road and met up with Mandisa. Come; come quick, its Keons sister! She is in desperate need of help. I didnt rely, I just ran with her to his home. There was a huge gathering of people out side of the house; me and Mandisa stepped into the sweltering house mounted of sad people, the mood was unbearable and cries came from the room that Keons sister lay. I ran into the room and looked into the eyes of the girl, I could see that she was in a cycle of eternal pain; I knew this was an incurable disease and couldnt help but feel sorry for the girl, at such a young age, (2 years younger than me and 3 years older than Keon.) I left the house and went to the little mud cottage where I was staying, I sat on the bed and relaxed, I cant stand emotional moments, it just brings back bad memories that Id rather not think about. There was a knock at the door, Hello, Eleza are you in there? sobbed a voice from behind the door, I went over to the door to find Keon looking at me then grasped my waist and burst into tears I hugged him for over 10 minutes before he let go and sat next to me on the bed and told me the tragic news about his sister. His father kindly invited me to the funeral then took Keon back home to get some sleep. I was shattered and was shocked by how much happened to me in one day, and was glad when the day came to a close. But I was eager to see what tomorrow had in store for me. African life chapter 14 Eleza, Eleza time to get up whispered a soft voice in my ear I couldnt talk because my lips were so dry and crisp they remained sealed, I leapt out of bed. They gave me a towel and a bucket of water to wash my face with. The first job of the day was to cover a simple lesson of spelling; I walked to the classroom with the children and was introduced to them all. I then started off the lesson by asking each individual child what they think their abilities are, this helped me to know what their level of learning is currently. The teachers didnt have books to teach from, just a teacher that goes by memory. I didnt get an education so I wasnt doing anything too complicated; I just went over what I already knew. The school day wasnt very long because the children got too hot in the classroom, after the class Mandisa met me outside. She told me that I was here to make a difference to the peoples lives and that I should try to make some tasks up for myself to complete. I thought for just a few moments then decided what I was going to do next. Keon showed me around the village and pointed over to the forest, or what remained of it anyway. I told him that I will protest against the men but I couldnt use force. I think I have a plan, what is the cutest creature in your forest? I questioned The baby monkeys are cute, they live high in the trees Keon replied Lets go then I shouted to him while running through the forest. Keon knew that there was only a slim chance that my plan would work and so he didnt get his hopes up. It took a while to spot any wildlife in the forest because the noise of the chainsaws had frightened them half to death, I crept up quietly to one of the babies, the mother was higher in the trees so she didnt see me coming, Keon gently lifted down the monkey and handed it to me, then we walked for miles and miles to find the campsite of the tree murderers and once there Keon gave a good firm knock on the door and waited for a response. Whos there came a voice behind them I turned around quickly and addressed them, We are begging you please stop cutting down the trees, so many animals die because you have taken away their home and family, here is a monkey that is calling out for your help I had to make up a sad story about the monkey or it wouldnt take effect. I am just against it as you but we must do this otherwise we are out of jobs and wont be able to afford to survive. I could see that the man wasnt the kind to give up easily and so I diverted to the second plan,you know, we will always have a place for you in the village and even though you have had you arguments with them, Im sure if you stop cutting the trees down they will be happy to take you in. if this didnt work then we were screwed. This is something I will consider, it wont be immediate but you idea will not be discarded, dont come back, we will move Im due course. The turned and walked away into their house, we went back to the village and carefully put the baby monkey back exactly where we found it. I went back to my where I slept the night before and rested there. As I lay I thought about all the changes I could make to this village if I put my mind to it, I wasnt an adult, but the village treated me as one and made me feel wanted. This was when I knew, my dream has become a reality, I wanted to make a difference to the world and help those in more need than me. For once in my life I feel that I have done my parents proud and just wish that they could be here beside me. Everyday for over a month I got up and helped around the village, and every evening I would visit Keons mother and comfort her because the loss of her daughter was still on her mind. I had gone through so many adventures in my life and only in 1 year I had gone half way across the world and have witnessed life and death pass me by, and yet am still at a young age of 14, but my birthday is next week and the village kindly offered to have a little bonfire to celebrate, Keon even offered to sing a traditional African song called Kpanlogo this song had a strong meaning behind it but he wanted to sing it because it had a great tune to it. Free life takes a change chapter 15 Keon was now a big part of my life and was like a brother to me, his mum was a thoughtful woman and she welcomed me into her family. I took the job of permanently teaching his class and in the process I even taught myself new things and the children told me about the animals and wildlife that surrounds them. That night Mandisa walked up to me with tears building up in her eyes, she told me that the mayor said that I couldnt stay any longer, he needed help back home. So unfortunately my time in Africa came to an end. I was heartbroken to leave my new family, I felt like someone when I was there and didnt want to go.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Voluntary Executions :: essays research papers fc

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Voluntary Executions   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Legal executions in Californian were authorized under the criminal practice act of 1851. On Feb. 14, 1872 capital punishment was incorporated into the penal code. In 1937, the legislature provided that lethal gas replace hanging with August 27, 1937 as the effective date. The only lethal gas chamber in the state was constructed at San Quentin. The first execution by lethal gas was conducted December 2, 1938. From that date through 1967 a total of 194 persons were executed by gas, all at San Quentin. This total includes four women. For 25 years after 1967 there were no executions in California due to various state and United States Supreme Court decisions. In 1972 the California Supreme Court found that the death penalty constituted cruel and unusual punishment under the state constitution. As a result 107 individuals had their sentences changed to other than death. In November 1972, nine months after the decision, the California electorate amended that state constitution and overruled the state supreme court. The California State legislature re-enacted the death penalty statue in 1977. Under the new statue, evidence in mitigation was permitted. In January 1993, a new law went into effect allowing inmates to choose lethal injection or lethal gas as the method of execution. In October 1994, an U.S. District Judge, Northern District (San Francisco) ruled that the gas chamber was cruel and unusual punishment, barring the state from using that method of execution. (State) â€Å" This clearly permits the death penalty to be imposed and establishes beyond doubt that the death penalty is not one of the cruel and unusual punishment’s prohibited by the Eighth amendment. (Scalia) When the nation was younger, criminal routinely were put to death in public. Now, state prison officials and news media representives are locked in a fight over just how public today’s death row executions should be. News media groups in California contend that have a constitution right to witness executions in their entirety. But state officials have won court permission to bar reporters and the public until moments before poison is pumped into a condemned inmate’s veins. A federal appeals court recently ruled that California officials could bar the public and press while preparing inmates for death. The process takes about 20 minutes and includes strapping inmates onto a gurney and inserting tubes into the condemned inmates veins that will carry the lethal drugs. (Carelli)   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled Tuesday that the public and news media have little-if any-constitutional right to see an execution, although the judges stopped short of saying whether a state could bar reporters from executions altogether.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Providing Feedback and Monitoring Student Progress Essay

Teacher feedback is the essential and probably the critical element of student learning. We frequently refer to teacher feedback as the effective instrument of instructional change. However, why do we always forget that teacher feedback is integrally linked to student motivation? In reality, teacher feedback is an effective tool that drives student motivation. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation may substantially improve when teachers do not simply score and grade students, but provide students with objective feedback and inform them about the progress they make during the learning process. At this point, it is important to look at teacher feedback through a different prism: we will distance ourselves from the traditional instructional paradigm, but will use the â€Å"learning paradigm, when after gathering information on the students’ learning process, the teacher reflects and gives his (her) views on what he (she) has observed back to the students† (Kwong, 2001). From the viewpoint of extrinsic motivation, teacher feedback serves an effective external factor that motivates students to learn. From the viewpoint of intrinsic motivation, the inner student desire to learn is increased when student needs are recognized, evaluated, and satisfied through teacher feedback. At least three different types of teacher feedback can be used to enhance student motivation in learning; these include informative feedback, grades, and task involvement. The concept of task involvement id described as â€Å"the concern to develop or demonstrate (primarily to oneself) high ability. It follows that when we are task-involved, we will attempt to learn if we see an opportunity to do so and, when doing so, will feel we are doing what we want to do† (Salili & Maehr, 1986). Task-involvement implies active and constant interaction between the teacher and student, where students feel responsibility for the learning outcomes, and where this responsibility increases student intrinsic motivation. If properly utilized, grades may also turn into effective force driving student motivation. Very often, grading is referred to as the instrument that negatively impacts students’ desire to learn (Salili & Maehr, 1986); that is why grading should be combined with informative teacher feedback. It is important that teachers do not use grades as a reward, but rather promote grades as the instrument reflecting student progress. Informative feedback may also be used separately, to inform students about their learning achievements, to inform students about additional learning opportunities and incentives, and to guarantee that students are able to use these opportunities and incentives to improve their achievements in learning. The concept of teacher feedback should be re-considered through a new â€Å"non-instructional prism†. The time has come to realize that objective teacher feedback combined with recognition and respect to students is a cost-effective factor driving student motivation at all stages of the learning process. Teacher feedback should be positive and objective. Teacher feedback should form the basis of continuous strategy, where students and teachers interact on equal terms, and all students have equal chances to succeed in learning.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Characteristics of Shakespeares History Plays

Many of Shakespeare’s plays have historical elements, but only certain plays are categorized as true Shakespeare histories. Works like Macbeth and Hamlet, for example, are historical in setting but are more correctly classified as Shakespearean tragedies. The same is true for the Roman plays (Julius Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra, and Coriolanus), which all recall historical sources but are not technically history plays. So, if many plays seem historical but only a few truly are, what makes a Shakespeare history? Sources of Shakespeares History Plays Shakespeare pulled inspiration for his plays from a number of sources, but most of the English history plays are based on Raphael Holinsheds Chronicles. Shakespeare was known for borrowing heavily from earlier writers, and he was not alone in this. Holinsheds works, published in 1577 and 1587, were key references for Shakespeare and his contemporaries, including Christopher Marlowe. Were Shakespeares Histories Accurate? Not exactly. Even though they were a great inspiration for Shakespeare, Holinsheds works were not particularly historically accurate; instead, they are considered mostly fictional works of entertainment. However, this is only part of the reason why you shouldnt use Henry VIII to study for your history test. In writing the history plays, Shakespeare was not attempting to render an accurate picture of the past. Rather, he was writing for the entertainment of his theater audience and therefore molded historical events to suit their interests. If produced in the modern-day, Shakespeares (and Holinsheds) writings would probably be described as based on historical events with a disclaimer that they were edited for dramatic purposes. Common Features of the Shakespeare Histories The Shakespeare histories share a number of things in common. First, most are set in times of medieval English history. The Shakespeare histories dramatize the Hundred Years War with France, giving us the Henry Tetralogy, Richard II, Richard III, and King John—many of which feature the same characters at different ages. Second, in all his histories, Shakespeare provides social commentary through his characters and plots. Really, the history plays say more about Shakespeare’s own time than the medieval society in which they are set. For example, Shakespeare cast King Henry V as an everyman hero to exploit the growing sense of patriotism in England. Yet, his depiction of this character is not necessarily historically accurate. Theres not much evidence that Henry V had the rebellious youth that Shakespeare depicts, but the Bard wrote him that way to make his desired commentary. Social Class in Shakespeares  Histories Despite seeming to focus on the nobility, Shakespeares history plays often offer a view of society that cuts right across the class system. They present us with all kinds of characters, from lowly beggars to members of the monarchy, and it is not uncommon for characters from both ends of the social strata to play scenes together. Most memorable is Henry V and Falstaff, who turns up in a number of the history plays. What Are Shakespeares History Plays? Shakespeare wrote 10 histories. While these plays are distinct in subject matter, they are not in style. Unlike other plays than can be categorized into genres, the histories all provide an equal measure of tragedy and comedy. The 10 plays classified as histories are as follows: Henry IV, Part IHenry IV, Part IIHenry VHenry VI, Part IHenry VI, Part IIHenry VI, Part IIIHenry VIIIKing JohnRichard IIRichard III